Karshi is the administrative centre of Kashkadaya viloyat of republic that is the biggest town of basin of Kashkadarya. At the beginning of 14 c. the town occurred in the middle of oasis at the southern foot of hill Kungurtau, on the ancient caravan road from Samarkand and Bukhara to Afghanistan and India.
Karshi was known as Nesef and the present name was given later. It stands out against other towns of Eastern Bukhara by trading of dried fruits, wool, karakul and products of artisan undertakings. For ages Karshi is famous for its pile less carpets, best in the republic. The most developed fields of economics of the region are gas production and gas conversion process, ginning and oil-extracting industries, industry of building materials, sewing and food industries.
A remarkable sight of the region is a petty, cozy, pure eastern town Shahrisabz. A small ancient town - Kesh was the home country of Amir Temur, the most eminent central Asian conqueror. The mentions of town occur in records of well-known Chinese traveller of 7 c. Syuan Tzjan, who passed through these places. After conquering of Central Asia by Arabs, the settlement acquired patterns, specific for a Muslim town, but later, during ruling of Samanids (9-10 cc.) it went into a decline in spite of thriving of Bukhara and Samarkand.
In 1220, Mongolian hordes did not face fierce opposition. By 1336, the year when Temur was born, Kesh and nearby settlements were ruled by clan of Barlas, mongols from ulus Chagatai. Temur used the ties of clan in order that to unify the followers around himself and after a ten-year vehement strife for power to become a ruler of Transoxian (the territory of present Central Asia).
At that time as Samarkand, owing to advantageous strategical disposition, became the capital of Temur’s Empire, Kesh was not forgotten. Furthermore, it was thoroughly consolidated and beautified. The internal town was surrounded by high walls and deep ditch, and Ak Saray rose above all that – a tremendous summer palace of Temur.
Although, the Empire of Temur was destroyed shortly after his death as well as many structures, built at his order, a new name of Kesh – Shakhrisabz (Green town), given thanks to numerous gardens in the vicinity of town, and remained in history. Plenty of architectural heritages of Temur were ruined by Bukhara khan Abdullah at the end of 16 c.
The local legends tell that approaching Shahrisabz, khan Abdulla lashed his horse to the death because he could not reach the town despite seeing Ak Serai distinctly. It was that colossal! And then he ordered in anger to destroy the palace and other constructions, built by Temur. However, until the middle of 19 c. Shahrisabz remained semi-dependent from Bukhara, unless in 1870 it was assaulted by Russian Troops under the lead of general Abramov and united with Russian Turkistan. Modern Shakhrisabz is the town submerged in tranquil atmosphere of leisurely life among immemorial architectural monuments, mosques and numerous traditional clay houses.